As mentioned in the Make It Big book, sampling plans are a commonly used to tool in quality and production. The book reviews a number of standards, the concepts behind them, and uses the Department of Defenses (DOD) specification 1916 (i.e., MIL-STD-1916) as an example of how sampling plans work. Download the spec from this post.
This specification replaces the older military standard 105, MIL-STD-105. The 1916 standard is included as a reference here: MIL-STD-1916.